The Digestive System Review
When digested, proteins are broken down into _____.
When digested, fats are broken down into _____.
both glycerol and fatty acids
Starch is a type of _____.
Your small intestine can absorb ____ without their being further digested.
Which of these enzymes begins the breakdown of starch?
Starch can be broken down into the disaccharide known as _____.
Protein digestion begins in the _____.
What is the main component of gastric juice?
_____ is secreted by the _____ and acts to emulsify _____ in the _____.
Bile ... liver ... fats ... small intestine
What acid is responsible for stomach acidity?
The layer of the GI tract wall that is responsible for motility is the
The process by which undigested material is removed from the gastrointestinal tract is
The process by which food is propelled through the digestive tract by alternating contraction and relaxation of smooth muscle is
Muscular movements that mix food in the lumen of the small intestine is referred to as
Once a bolus of food has been formed in the mouth, it is passed by the tongue and jaws to the
The figure above is a diagram of a tooth. Which of the labeled parts of the tooth is made up of a nonliving compound of phosphate and calcium?
The ________ is the region of a tooth that lies below the gum line, and the entire tooth sits in a socket in the jawbone, lined with ________, indicated by label ________.
root, periodontal membrane, E
The salivary glands include
sublingual, parotid, and submandibular glands.
the epiglottis bends to close the trachea.
Mucin in saliva functions to
aid in food particles sticking together.
Gastric juice in the stomach is composed of
HCL, fluids secreted from gastric glands, pepsinogen.
"Gurgling of the stomach" is due to
Pepsin is a digestive enzyme that specifically targets
Bile is produced by the ________ and stored in the ________.
liver, gall bladder
The watery mixture of partially digested food produced in the stomach is called
The pancreatic ducts connect to the small intestine at the
In the small intestine, amino acids and monosaccharides are moved into the mucosal cells by the process of
The pancreas aids in the chemical digestion of food by
releasing digestive enzymes and biocarbonate ions into the duodenum.
Nutrient rich blood moves from the small intestine to the liver via
the hepatic portal system
An eating disorder in which someone diets excessively or deliberately stops eating altogether is called
As chyme leav
es the stomach, the acidic nature of the partially digested food stimulates the pancreas to release the signalling molecule,
Which of the following types of diets is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease?
diet high in saturated fat and cholesterol
Which of the following vitamins can be produced by the human body?
Water-soluble vitamins differ from fat-soluble vitamins in that water-soluble vitamins
are stored for a brief period of time.
A disorder of the nervous system in which the individual eats and then deliberately vomits is
Trypsin is a digestive enzyme produced by the pancreas to facilitate the chemical breakdown of
The appendix is considered one of the lesser accessory organs of the digestive tract
Gingivitis occurs when tooth decay causes inflammation of the enamel and pulp of the tooth.
The condition known as acid reflux occurs when the lower esophageal sphincter malfunctions, allowing stomach fluid into the esophagus
Mucin is a major component of saliva, which lubricates the teeth and causes food to stick together during swallowing.
Stomach acid does not break down the wall of the stomach because gastric juice contains a powerful base that neutralizes the acid before it can cause damage.
Segmentation is the primary means of mechanical breakdown of food in the digestive tract.
The hepatic portal vein carries blood rich in nutrients from the liver to the small intestine; there, the nutrients undergo further processing before they are released into general circulation.
Secretin is released by the liver to stimulate the pancreas to release bicarbonate ion into the small intestine
"MyPyramid" provides a personalized approach to assist an individual in developing a successful nutrition plan.
According to the American Dietetic Association, the best diet is one that does not include any carbohydrates or fats; a diet based on protein consumption is sufficient.
Teeth are located in sockets in the jaws; these sockets are lined by a ________ membrane.
Dental caries are caused by the production of ________ by bacteria in the mouth
Mucosal cells of the stomach secrete ________ , which binds to vitamin B12 so that it can be better absorbed in the small intestine.
Region of the small intestine with the lowest pH is the
"Brush border" refers to ________ found on the surface of the epithelial cells of the small intestine.
The digestion of proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates is completed in the ________
The small, fingerlike structure that extends from the cecum is the ________.
Bacteria residing in the large intestine release ________, which is absorbed by the human host and used for the process of blood clotting
Gastrin is a hormone secreted by the ________
Natural sugars such as those from fruit and honey are classified as ________.
Postmenopausal women are often advised to take the mineral ________ as a supplement to their diet in order to prevent bone loss due to osteoporosis.
Secretin stimulates the _____ to secrete _____.
pancreas ... bicarbonate
The acidity of the stomach contents triggers the small intestine to secrete a hormone known as _____.
The presence of fatty acids and amino acids in the stomach contents triggers the small intestine to secrete a hormone known as _____.
cholecystokinin, or CCK
Brown fat appears brown because it is filled with what?
Most brown fat on infants is found where?
on their backs
Which hormones activate brown fat?
Which protein is unique to brown fat?
Where does the chemical digestion of proteins begin?
Which of the following statements about the organs of the digestive system is true?
Although protein digestion begins in the stomach, pancreatic enzymes break the final polypeptide chains into amino acids.
What would happen if the liver were unable to produce enough bile salts?
Fatty acid absorption would decrease.
Which of the following macromolecules go directly from the lumen of the small intestine to the epithelial cells of the intestine and on through to the blood stream?
carbohydrates and proteins
Another name for the alimentary canal is ________.
All nutrients must cross this layer
Responsible for motility in the GI tract
Good molecules that are absorbed by mucosa enter the blood vessels of this tissue layer
Attaches organs to the body wall; this thin layer of connective tissue is located on the surface of the organs
Elimination of undigested food material, from the large intestine is controlled by
The defecation reflex
Essential amino acids
Are required in the diet because the human body cannot make them
Cholecystokinin (CCK) stimulates the ____ to secrete _____.
Pancreas... Pancreatic enzymes
Bile is produced by the ____ and stored by the ____ until it is secreted into the small intestine
Liver... Gall bladder
Releases bile into the duodenum
Secretes bicarbonate and digestive enzymes into small intestine
Mechanical and chemical digestion begins here
Relies on peristalsis to move food to the stomach
Hydrochloricacid is released to promote digestion of proteins
Breaks down proteins in the small intestine
Secreted in an inactive form by gastric glands
Breaks down lipids
Secreted by salivary glands to begin breakdown of starch
Inflammation of the gum tissue, often due to tooth decay
Condition that results when part of the stomach protrudes through the opening in the diaphragm into the chest cavity
Inflammation of the liver, caused by toxic substances or viruses
Permanent damage to cells of liver often caused by long-term abuse of alcohol; results in liver dysfunction
Noncancerous growth of the mucous membrane of an organ of the digestive tract; can be detected by a colonoscopy
Inability to digest milk sugar die to lack of an enzyme; symptoms include bloating, cramps, diarrhea
The outermost layer of the gastrointestinal tract is the
Accessory organs of the digestive system
Salivary glands, pancreas, gallbladder, liver
Truths regarding the esophagus
Mucosa produces mucus that facilitates passage of food
organ transports food from the pharynx to the stomach
A bacterium that causes peptic ulcers
High levels of chylomicrons in the blood means excess consumption of